Contents (PVS)

1. Introduction
2. Binocular rivalry and stereoscopy in bioptical art
3. Bioptical effects, definitions
4. Bioptical means for psychotherapy
5. Laboratory hall for visual therapy
6. Aspects relative to the applications of plastic arts in psychotherapy
7. Psychodrom
8. About interpretations or exegeses by means of bioptics
9. About a didactic experiment in bioptical art
10. Space - time - colour
11. Contributions
12. Visual-sense-storming
13. Visual binarity
14. Some additions and resumptions on the bioptical composition
15. Psychical satiety in affectivity

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About interpretations or exegeses by means of bioptics
- variations on a theme -

The Paired off Visual Signal   Liviu Iliescu

We know about "variations on a theme" in music. Variations are introduced in a certain theme in point of melody (to a certain extent), rhythm, relative values of the notes, harmony. Some composers are known to revive the works of other musicians, as a homage. It is also known that composers use to introduce cadences of their own in the concertos created by others.
The bioptical art permits to introduce similar modalities, as I shall show in the following lines. Many compositions of the modern plastic art succeed in conveying only a little of the artist's sensitivity. They have a high entropic degree. Art critics try to cover the distance between the artist and the recipient subject. I provide the opportunity to introduce in well-known compositions a different type of wordless comments, with the help of bioptical means. They may complement known types of visual psychotherapy with beneficial effects.
For illustration, I have chosen compositions from the field of Suprematism, De Stijl, and Minimal Art.
I have retained some fundamental elements which are common to their manifestos:
- compositions with minimum signs
- perfect performance
- avoiding any allusions to reality
- somewhat restrictive criteria, as to colour, form graphics and space
Those artistic currents have aroused major concern in art critique. On the other hand they also provide facilities for introducing bioptical stimuli.
Relative to the minimalist desideratum - perfect performance,bioptical modalities rule out not common fine structures viewed through the bioptical device. No matter how perfect the work is, a super-perfection occurs (see the definition of retinal cooperation).
The bioptical colour (resulting from the binocular rivalry) has the following characteristics:
- it is translucent, nacreous, ghost-like
- it changes alternatively, successively tending towards components present in the observable ensemble.
These effects are obtained depending on :
- the component colours from the fields for the left eye and for the right eye, respectively
- the way in which the coloured area is circumscribed,- the thickness of the contour line
- a guide-mark of intermediary colour (see the definition of the colour fusion with marks).
The colour resultant cannot be materialized but it may be transmitted to other persons. (Bioptical colours are composed following different criteria than those known in the usual plastic arts).
The bioptical space provides several effects:
- stereoscopy with dynamic depths
- modification of the forms, when passing from normal viewing to observation through the bioptical device
- reversal of linear and colour perspectives
- other spatial effects, such as hyperspace, bispace (see their definitions)
The dynamics of space depth is defined as the effect of apparent displacements of painted forms in the superposition field, induced by static forms, painted according to certain rules. Displacements in time are noticed, with a duration which differs from an observer to another (1 to 5 minutes) and which is lower in trained subjects. Kinetic perceptions from static forms may be revealed.
Modifications occur when succesively viewing with the naked eye and then through the bioptical device. Fundamentally different perceptions are sometimes obtained. I have called this a psychic cycle. The important differences perceived, among others, are also related to the modification of forms. Two aspects may be seized:
- Transition from a form related to reality to another form, also related to reality
- In the same sequence, flat forms and an ensemble of colour spots are perceived as spatial existences, when viewed through the bioptical device.
The perception of forms related to reality does not mean that the obtained forms are known but that they are objectual. For instance glass shards have no known form but they are acknowledged as objects by apperceptive structures.
Suprematism: promoter - Kazimir Malevich
I have tried to interpret the space created by Malevich, by triggering sensations liable to direct communication, by convergent vision, without the agency of conventions.

Fig. 8.1 Kazimir Malevich, Blue triangle and black rectangle. 65.5 X 57 cm Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum (Dictionnaire de la Peinture - Larousse, 1993)
Bioptical interpretation (One should view with crossed eyes, as in figure 4.1)

Fig. 8.2
About interpretations or exegeses by means of bioptics
- variations on a theme -
Stereograms (arranged for crossed-eye viewing)

Fig. 8.3
Stereograms (arranged for crossed-eye viewing)

Fig. 8.4
Stereograms (arranged for crossed-eye viewing)

Figure 8.2. The vertex of the triangle dives into the black field of the rectangle.
Figure 8.3. The triangle floats towards the observer, detaching itself from the rectangle.
Figure 8.4. There occurs an effect of colour rivalry; the rectangle seems to dematerialize.
Scores of interpretations may be supplied.
Some comments on Suprematism
"For suprematists, space outgrows the representation in three dimensions and is inspired by the geometrical theories of the fourth dimension. This form of space is conceived of several layers of dimensions, through which forms evolve.
In the work of Malevich, the fourth dimension fuses time and space: these two elements allow forms to evolve freely. The forms are fixed in the first three dimensions but they are activated in the fourth dimension." (Wikipedia, December 2006)
The forms created by Suprematism are characterized by high conceptual synthesis, but they are meant first of all for an intellectual elite, able to amalgamate the painted form with the contents of conventional descriptions. The ideas induced by Suprematism, and abstract art in general, may be turned to account by bioptical means. The introduction of bioptical stimuli triggers sensations perceived by the standard observer regardless of his intellectual level. Thus, we may agree that the fourth dimension stated by Suprematism, in addition to the three of the surrounding world, might be the effect of colour (binocular) rivalry, which induces a perception of the concrete material or substance in a ghost-like way (see figures 2.12 and 8.4). In this way, new means are provided for artists-commentators, and their compositions do not necessarily enter the sphere of eclecticism or mannerism. I think that such compositions are to be recommended for visual psychotherapy, for people on the borderline between affection and intelligence.
I recall that the highest effects are obtained when the painting with pair fields placed one under the other is viewed with a bioptical device. Close to the painting, the original composition should be mentioned, or even reproduced in a photo. A presentation could be included in the documentation for the training of patients who undergo treatments of visual therapy.

Fig. 8.5 Piet Mondrian (De Stijl). Composition with Red, Yellow and Blue, 1921.

Fig. 8.6
Stereograms (arranged for crossed-eye viewing)

Relative to figure 2.11 (Study H), the presence of the oval in the composition Enclosure with converted matter makes me refer to some already expressed opinions and experiments. I would like to point to Piet Mondrian`s period called "Ovals" and to some observations of Victor Ieronim Stoichita in his book Mondrian (Meridiane, 1979, p. 13, 14).
Stoichita discusses Mondrian`s Oval and then refers to the egg seen by Brancusi as Beginning of the World. He states that for Paul Klee the plastic equivalent of the egg is the dot. He also mentions Ion Barbu's poem Oul dogmatic [The dogmatic egg] and quotes the verses Nevinovatul noul ou / Palat de nunta si cavou ["The new and innocent egg/ Bridal palace and burial vault"], which are surprisingly close to my intention.
To help create an image closer to my aim, I quote the whole stanza: Cum lumea veche in clestar/ Inoata in subtire var/ Nevinovatul noul ou,/ Palat de nunta si cavou ["The same as the old world in crystal/ Swims in thin lime/ The new and innocent egg/ Bridal palace and burial vault"]. Stoichita's observations on Mondrian's oeuvre are valuable as he brings a contribution to the imaginary aspect and his erudition is adapted to the artistic creation. He helps to create an educational atmosphere, even in the case of compositions such as those of the "Ovals" period, where the economy of signs is the greatest.
Since an abstract composition allows several explanations, I think that Mondrian's inspiration may also be interpreted in a different way, as concerns the painting Oval composition (1913-1914). A great many vertical and horizontal lines are circumscribed by an oval, which exceeds the sides of the painting. In my opinion this is a synthesis between the Euclidean and the non-Euclidean. If perpendiculars on a straight line do not intersect anywhere in space - this is Euclidean geometry. If perpendiculars on an equator meet in a point at a finite distance, such as the Pole (suggested by the lines of the oval), another postulate is obvious, with the nightmarish images of the trans-Euclidean geometry.
This simplification goes further with Mondrian, who eliminates curves and observes an itinerary with a reversed phylogenesis. In parallel with a simplified visible side, his inner experiences acquire trance-like syntheses. The abstractization process experienced by Mondrian has led him to the highest entropic states, to an imaginary structure hard to convey only by the agency of the visible. He has confessed that his condition of permanent inspiration led him to the highest synthesis, to identify himself with the essence of the surrounding real world. He feels that he has a neutral standing and thinks that everything else is centred on male or female aspects. Thus, vertical trees represent the male and the sea horizon represents the female. He finds peace in his feelings of hermaphrodite contemplation, when he feels that he lies on the terrestrial.
Maybe Mondrian imagined for the trees the lines of force of the gravity field. They pass through the core of the fir-tree and make it miraculously grow straight up towards the sky, perpendicular on the sea horizon.
Mondrian is linked to his postulate, as in the Euclidean one. Yet, man experiences the dream of the imponderable that releases him from the terrestrial. A trans-Mondrian postulate ought to be invented. It might be that which induces non-material sensations opposed to the gravity and the psychic "heaviness". My endeavours and successes refer to the extension of communication possibilities in the visual arts, especially those which induce sensations of annulment of "heaviness".
"Minimal art is a current of contemporary art initiated in the sixties in the United States. In painting, two or three colours are generally used, the same as basic forms: circles, squares, straight lines, a.s.o.
Simplicity is primordial and there is no subjective representation in minimalism; it is devoid of any symbols and plays only on forms and colours, avoiding emotion in a literal sense: an art devoid of any subjective and objective feelings". (Wikipedia)

Fig. 8.7 Dan Flavin

Fig. 8.8
Stereograms (arranged for crossed-eye viewing)

Figure 8.8 shows translucent spatial transpositions of the colours.
There are some peculiarities as concerns the application of bioptical modalities to well-known compositions of fine arts, the same as in the case of the theme with variations in music.
This application seems to be a brutal intervention in works of art, acknowledged as such in culture. The bioptical pairs seem to debase the forms considered to be "archetypal", landmarks in the modern art of the 20th century.
However, in the case of bioptical art turned to account in psychotherapy, the aim is to induce primitive sensations, diminishing the resort to intelligence. Sensations are independent of the highly intellectual content of the original composition. The basic form is used in this case only as information. Artists are invited to introduce bioptical stimuli in such compositions, since they are trained in affective experiences.
The original forms will be presented to the patients by the means described in chapter 5. Then, the therapist will guide them in discovering bioptical effects. Besides, patients will be taught to introduce bioptical stimuli into simplified types of compositions, using the computer. In this way, a variant of Arno Stern's psychotherapeutic type is applied.
As for brutalizing archetypes, it is worth emphasizing the artists` tendency to rise above the standard behaviour. Figure 8.9 illustrates Mona Lisa with Dali`s moustache and figure 8.10 shows Marcel Duchamp`s Fountain, a urinal stated to be the most valuable creation of the plastic arts in the 20th century.
Speaking of the possible promotion of bioptical modalities, I would like to point to the criterion called contemplation time. The strange aspects of modern art are shocking people during instantaneous contemplation. The stimuli of binocular rivalry induce duration contemplation. For an illustration, I mention the dynamics of space depth.

Fig. 8.9 Salvador Dali, Self-portrait as Mona Lisa (1954).

Fig. 8.10 Marcel DUCHAMP, Fountain, 1917 (original lost)
Readymade porcelain urinal, height 60cm
Philadelphia Museum of Art

Fig. 8.11 The urinal, to be used