Contents (PVS)

1. Introduction
2. Binocular rivalry and stereoscopy in bioptical art
3. Bioptical effects, definitions
4. Bioptical means for psychotherapy
5. Laboratory hall for visual therapy
6. Aspects relative to the applications of plastic arts in psychotherapy
7. Psychodrom
8. About interpretations or exegeses by means of bioptics
9. About a didactic experiment in bioptical art
10. Space - time - colour
11. Contributions
12. Visual-sense-storming
13. Visual binarity
14. Some additions and resumptions on the bioptical composition
15. Psychical satiety in affectivity

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Some additions and resumptions on the bioptical composition

The Paired off Visual Signal   Liviu Iliescu

In the bioptical composition are used in a first stage (bioptical contemplation stage) conventional techniques known in the fine arts, but considering that, the stage of the bioptical contemplation adds a significant number of new stimuli, we need a proper explanation of contiguities and a demarcation for the first stage.

Imagine the following situation:
You need to communicate to a person to draw a square, a person who has never seen such a geometrical figure.

We do know that the person has the following concepts: line segments, parallel lines and right angles, so it will understand the necessary instructions and will be able to draw a square.

Similarly, I try to communicate to people the results of the experiments that i have performed, people who had learned the techniques of fine arts, in the hope that they will confirm the reproductibility of the square and will be engaged in the development of the area that i propose.

You do need to pay attention to directions and details that have resulted from experiments.

Unlike the conventional images of fine arts, compositions can be regarded as belonging to bioptical art if you obtain by contemplation the following perception:

Psychophysiological mixture of colours, retinal cooperation, antispace in art, spatial harmony, bispace in art, psychic cycle, dynamics of space depth, spatial disharmony, hyper-realistic effects, hiatus in art, visual gradient, hyperspace in art, space and time in bioptical art, field binocular rivalry.

Some of these have not been experienced by humans yet. (see Chapter 3. Bioptical effects, definitions)

These perceptions are perceived by the standard man (starting with the intellectual level below average – without specialty training – with a normal binocular vision, corrected with eyeglasses, if the case, but who perceives stereoscopic images, or, as the case may be, can be trained to gain the habit to perceive them.

To these are added and other phenomena that i have highlighted, such as high-field rivalry, dematerialization of the background (of the substance), phenomena like those above, which are actually transmitted through the challenge perceptions in subjects receptors and are not impressions sometimes metaphorically described by art critics, suggested by one or another composition, with values in the area of the conventional art.

The compositions of those pairs that cause bioptical phenomena have a role of intermediation and therefore must be somewhat outside of the incidences created by conventional criticism, such as considerations of mannerism, eclecticism, and other criteria. May be inconsistent, but must be accepted with the condition to cause substantially biotic effects. Of course, these compositions must have primary artistic values, but with licenses (artistic one), considering that the ultimate goal is to install those bioptic effects, a goal that should be a priority.

Although the elements that compose the bioptical pair (points, lines, spots of color, complex shapes) are geometrical distant, they must be designed to meet together, strictly, the criteria for participation in the installation of perception: binocular rivalry, Helmholtz colour fusion, stereoscopy, retinal disparities.

Couple zones are not permitted, the composition should have independent structures of these criteria. Even if the contour of a shape meets the bioptical perceptions requirement, the pair inside the shape should meet the same rule. Otherwise the bioptical effects are fading or are canceled, setting up the conventional image.

Naturalistic forms must be used too (considered tedious or consumed in conventional compositions) in the pair of compositions containing bioptical stimulus. It produces a conceptual rehabilitation, in that these obsolete forms may provide startling contrasts to the bioptical perception.

Derogatory or decorativism considerations of diminishing intensity on conventional obtained feelings should not interfere with the effects of psychological influence, which could get by switching to the bioptical perceptions.

Should be avoided, if possible, forms that run through the lines forming the illusion of space assemblies. For example, a street seen in perspective by shifting at the bioptical perception will not cause significant spatial contrasts. In isolated cases could still get noticeable effects by introducing Helmholtz colour fusion stimuli.

For the development of the bioptical art domain, to see to what extent techniques are original, to fit up to date with contributions that occur in both synergistic combined areas (mentioned above) and in related fields - are required investigations on Google with keywords, as comprehensive as they get a huge documentary material, ordered through evaluations using over 300 criteria.

In the case of bioptical art we used the following keywords:

fine arts visual sense (extracts have appeared in millions of results, both in images and from web pages)

fine arts binocular rivalry

fine arts colour fusion helmholtz

fine arts stereoscopy (stereoscopy which refers to the domain and not fine arts stereoscopic as stereoscopic achievements; I use stereoscopy in combination with features)

From bioptical art are indicated on top of the searches through texts, images and pages that can be evidenced by titles: visual sense storming ; the paired off visual signal ; ; artabioptica ; Liviu Iliescu

Some resumptions, additions and clarifications

The artist who wants to make bioptical compositions should undergo a period of training to gain skills to realize the correlation between his knowledge learned in developing conventional compositions and transition to the bioptical composition (domain which is located in an experimental area).

I give below some examples, described briefly, as they are in good measure presented in previous chapters from the site:

In this chapter the binograms (stereograms) are arranged to be viewed with crossed eyes.

In terms of technique for achieving stereoscopic space I quote from the chapter ( Elemente geometrice in Arta Bioptica

To obtain spatial perception, it is necessary to introduce horizontally differences in the picture between conjugated points; differences noted in Fig. 31 with D, as has been previously shown. Theoretical developments to reveal space are known, especially in stereophotogrametry, but in bioptical painting I suggested two simple formulas, in the Patent RO 67678:

a = 0,064c/(e-c); b = 0,064d/(e+d)


a = horizontal distance on the picture corresponding to a point in space that you want to be perceived by the eye toward painting
b = horizontal distance to a point on the picture that you want to be perceived behind the painting
c, d = distance before, and behind the painting respectively, which it wants to perceive those points
e = distance at which it wants to be seen the picture (after the realization of the composition, it can be seen from 0.25 m to tens of meters, depending on the initial distance of calculation (s).
In the formulas appears the value of 0.064, which is an average pupillary distance in meters. So, all sizes (a, b and c, d, e) be expressed in meters.

In order to support my quotes I present below a rule deduced from these equations, rule can be applied with ease.

Let's suppose that each of the two images that compose each bioptical pair is attached to a system of coordinates: x, y and x ', y'

Stereoscopic space will be achieved through many pairs of graphic points (visible limit points, spots of different colors) with compositions that make up the forms.

The pair of reference points meets the condition of the reference plane position:

x=x’ y=y’

For any other point:

y= y’ ; x=x’+/- M

M is a module that is defined as:

For a bioptical composition on a A4 surface viewed from a distance of 500mm is set M = 0 ... 5 mm

Basically the ordinates (y, y ') for a pair of points remain constant (whatever their value on the vertical), but for the same pair of points, for the pair to give the illusion of spatial change, horizontal value of those points must differ in the range 0 ... + / - 5 mm. As the difference is greater in this range the greater the stereoscopic effect, before or behind the reference plane.

When the composition involves increasing the proportion of the format and distance of observation the M module is increased proportionally.

The rule applies equally to forms in space (at the sculptures)

Fig. 1.14

Fig. 2.14

Fig. 3.14

In the figures 1.14, 2.14, 3.14 I used an existing computer program to make a group of points so that each pair of points from the group has a different M module. Then I repeated manually the group's construction making the points cloud, cloud to whom i applied again the computer program to introduce other modules for each of the differential pair of points in the assembly, also obtaining the desired positionof the assembly in space.

I have limited computer use to the minimum possible, consciously intervening in succession, in intervals of the order of seconds, to use my gift of free will and to confirm with my own artistic sensitivity the melodic line in the inspiration rhythm.

Fig. 4.14 (Painting detail of “M Study” by L. Iliescu)

I present another contribution in Figure 4.14. In the central form we applied what we have defined "color fusion with marks" (see Chapter 3) to make possible the stability fusion between red and blue. Most of the tested subjects have seen this type of fusion. The effect is achieved by attempts to dose the two color shades, so as at the painting (object) contemplation you need to match the incident light.

It is noteworthy the "retinal cooperation" effect, ie the bioptical perception of the process to improve playing shape.

Fig. 5.14

In the Figure 5.14 I try to give yet another example of how could extend the applications of my proposal in the chapter:

Stimuli-evoked abstractisation (abstractizare stimulata) -

We imagine a rectangular transparent glass whose flat surface reflects an object, not included in the drawing, glass having different properties from physical absolutism, so you get a multitude of reflections of different shapes and colors and we can call the phenomenon in fine arts as Hyperreflexia (I propose that as theme for artists)

Similarly, the artists have gone at the idea (simple one) to carry out in fine arts supercubes and can be seen on Google a lot of representations selected from a number of search results ~ 19 000 web pages ~ 1200 images.

Fig. 6.14 (detail of the composition "A Study" by L. Iliescu)

Hyperrealism made in the bioptical art, where the reflection images appear in the space appropriate to the laws of physics. In exceptional cases, to increase the sensation of brightness, an isolated spot of color is second to none - this is the situation of percepting the reflections by an object, in nature - not all reflecting images are seen by both eyes.

Fig. 7.14 (detail of the composition "K Study" by L. Iliescu)

In the Figure 6.14 is an example of Binocular Rivalry. When we look with the eyes crossed alternately is collected an image at the right and one at the left at the intervals of about five seconds.

Binocular rivalry is a field which has aroused the researchers interest in the last three decades, especially in psychology and neurology.

Randolph Blake lists more than 140 references in his study A Primer on Binocular Rivalry, Including Current Controversies, published in "Brain and Mind" in 2001. Sixty percent of the titles were published after 1975. [Figure 2.1 of this chapter is reproduced from Blake`s article.] Blake briefly reviews the main contributions, starting with J.B. Porta`s De Refractione. Optices Part. Libri Novem of 1593, quoted by N.J. Wade in 1998 in A Natural History of Vision.

In order to follow up the historic itinerary of studies on binocular rivalry,
I will also refer to Wade’s monograph.

Dan Flavin (see Chapter 8 – L. Iliescu bioptical transposition)

Fig. 8.14 Spatial colors are observed with crossed-eye viewing, as if a dematerialization of the substance occurred

Fig. 9.14 (Liviu Iliescu - binocular rivalry, colour fusion and stereoscopy Bioptical Art 1998)
Should be viewed with both crossed-eye and parallel viewing

Fig. 10.14. Headset

device at the right eye device between the eyes device at the left eye

The bioptical device is attached to the headset by means of a connecting link that enables a fast and easy movement in the three positions presented in the photos.

By settlements device from left to right spatial reversals appear (anti space in fine art)

Fig. 11.14 - Liviu Iliescu Study P (colored paper collages)

(binogamme arranged for crossed-eye viewing)
I called binogramme the pairs from bioptical compositions.
Fig.12.14 - extracted from figure 11.14
In orthoscopic image the forms appear as floating
(as in space without gravity)

(binogramme arranged for crossed-eye viewing)
Figure 13.14 ; extracted from figure 11.14
In the image inverted the forms appear to occupy space partially common (perception of penetrable)

Fig. 14.14 - Liviu Iliescu ; Study T

(binogamme arranged for crossed-eye viewing)
I called binogramme the pairs from bioptical compositions.
Figure 15.14 ; extracted from figure 11.14
Orthoscopic image

(binogamme arranged for crossed-eye viewing)
Figure 16.14 - extracted from figure 11.14
In reverse image are forms that appear opposite to
geometric perspective.