Contents (PVS)

1. Introduction
2. Binocular rivalry and stereoscopy in bioptical art
3. Bioptical effects, definitions
4. Bioptical means for psychotherapy
5. Laboratory hall for visual therapy
6. Aspects relative to the applications of plastic arts in psychotherapy
7. Psychodrom
8. About interpretations or exegeses by means of bioptics
9. About a didactic experiment in bioptical art
10. Space - time - colour
11. Contributions
12. Visual-sense-storming
13. Visual binarity
14. Some additions and resumptions on the bioptical composition
15. Psychical satiety in affectivity

Back to the first page

Binocular Rivalry - Colour Fusion - Stereoscopy

The Paired off Visual Signal   Liviu Iliescu

See also

Premises for Visual-Sense-Storming

Bioptical Art is the personal denomination that I ascribed to a new field in arts, which I deemed appropriate, following a long series of experiments developed in the area of the particular modalities of perceptual extensions in painting and in sculpture.

Hence, in the techniques that I propose – comprised under the title of Bioptical Art – for the use thereof in fine arts, I describe types of stimuli causing innovative perceptions by the synergetic application of the modalities belonging to the following fields: Binocular Rivalry: Colour Fusion; Stereoscopy.

As an engineer specialized in optical systems, I studied, from various vision angles, and especially having regard to the interest in the field of optics, the various procedures used in fine arts, creating contribution possibilities for researchers in the following fields: Psychology, Psychiatry, Aesthetics.

As a result of these studies of over 50 years, I drafted innovative modalities, applicable in fine arts, aiming at increasing the communication possibilities. They reside in introducing in compositions new types of stimuli for visual sensations, causing perceptions not experienced in the traditional fine arts, expanding thus the possibilities of expression for the artists. I synthesized these contributions and the results of my research in the monograph Bioptical Art (see the sites

With the view on developing and confronting the use of the new techniques and modalities proposed by me in fine arts, I would like to transmit details to certain artists that might be interested in exercising at least the manner to look at these new types of compositions, which are essentially the following:

The new and innovative modalities of perception in fine arts enable alternative contemplations. Hence, they are seen firstly in a usual manner, and in sequence, a second stage follows, when they are viewed by looking with one eye through a system of two small mirrors, and with the other eye free (bioptical vision).

The bioptical composition vision derives in a multitude of effects, such as:
- Powerful contrasts of colours and shapes; in normal vision alternated with bioptical vision.
- Expanding the awareness of visual perception on the entire retina (through disinhibition and through unclear edges). This effect enables the integration of the composition in the environment, one being able to place complementary painting and sculpture compositions in the adjacent areas.
- New perceptions, some of which unexperienced, noticeable either spontaneously or by training to cause ad-hoc habits.

For the artists who have already formed a style of perception, exercising bioptical art may represent trainings that would open new perspectives.

I hereby invite some of them to join the ones who have already learned to create bioptical compositions so as to exchange images and ideas through the Internet.

This way, visual-sense-storming methods may be applied, with the view to perfecting the methods that I identified, as well as for original elaborations, substantially separated from the ones that result from current techniques.

The Architect Filippo Brunelleschi theorized during the Renaissance the geometric perspective that made possible the masterpieces of certain painters with extraordinary artistic sensitivity.

I subject the Bioptical Art that I propose, observing the proportions as compared to the major contributions from culture, to an assessment of a likely similarity.

I bring to the attention of the fine art artists my accomplishments in the field of Bioptical Art, with the view to valorising thereof directly or through eventual developments.

The author

New techniques in fine arts by applying the research from Binocular Rivalry associated in a synergistic manner with Colour Fusion and with elements of Stereoscopy.

A bioptical device at the right eye

bioptical device at the left eye


Advantages of the vertical layout of binogrammes

- The fusion of the binogrammes is more accurate
- The contemplation is more relaxed (simplified system containing only two small plane mirrors positioned at one eye).
- Moving the device from one eye to the other causes essential modifications in the visual perception by reversing the components of the binogramme corresponding to the eyes, obtaining: space reversing of the linear and chromatic perspectives, modifications in the binocular rivalry effects, as well as modifications of tones and shades in the color fusion
- Integrating the composition in the environment, because the eye that remains free perceives also the adjacent field (120 degrees)
- The possibility to accomplish the bioptical fresco.

Possibility to associate stimuli causing innovative perceptions with the techniques used in traditional fine arts such as:
Psychophysiological mixture of colours, retinal cooperation, antispace in art, spatial harmony, bispace in art, psychic cycle, dynamics of space depth, spatial disharmony, hyper-realistic effects, hiatus in art, visual gradient, hyperspace in art, space and time in bioptical art, field binocular rivalry.
Some of these have not been experienced by humans yet.

- These perceptions are perceived by the standard man (starting with the intellectual level below average – without specialty training – with a normal binocular vision, corrected with eyeglasses, if the case, but who perceives stereoscopic images, or, as the case may be, can be trained to gain the habit to perceive them.
- Bioptical compositions are similar to traditional fine art compositions, however with distinct artistic structures that stand out when contemplated as traditional, conventional compositions.
- Bioptical art compositions may be submitted to the attention of consecrated artists, at least to have experiences with innovative stimuli.
- Although the development of the bioptical field is also based on certain mathematical relations, the practice takes place according to certain simple rules; some may be practiced by persons with less training in fine arts.
- Obviously, the consecrated artists, using their knowledge and talent, may create compositions in their own style, by valorising bioptical means at the level of aesthetic criteria.
- Each colour spot, line for the bioptical space is manually introduced in the composition, hence each moment should be confirmed by artistic sensitivity, similar to the traditional techniques. Possible perspectives are expected to use computer programmes that must be limited, as they alienate the artist from his artistic sensibility.


Bioptical painting

Fig. 1. L. Iliescu – Study D – oil on cardboard – 90 X 65 cm

Fig. 2. Details from figure 1 (details arranged for crossed-eye viewing)
I called binogramme the pairs from bioptical compositions.
In fig. 3 the binogramme is vertical.
In fig. 4 the binogramme is horizontal.

The horizontal binogramme is used in publications and, in some cases, as appendix to the vertical bioptical painting, for naked eye contemplation.
Bioptical Device
In the studies I performed so as to multiply the means in communications by fine arts, I considered the fact that the receptor subject should be as little influenced as possible by the optical intermediation elements so as to introduce in painting and sculpture the stimuli of: binocular rivalry, colour fusion and stereoscopy.

With respect thereto, influences in perception may be obtained by drifting away from object. For example, it is a well-known fact that observing the satellites of Jupiter through the astronomic telescope causes more powerful psychic influences than in case they are broadcasted by television.

I developed an optical device that fulfils the following features:
- Deviation from the convergence of the eye axes within the limits of medical prescriptions
- The optical system simplified at maximum, respectively, two plane mirrors positioned only in front of one eye, with modifications below 1% of the visible spectrum
- Low weight (~ 30 grams at the handmade model; weight could be substantially decreased in case of industrial production)
- Adaptable on various supports (for headset with and without using eyeglasses, for handle, for a support similar to the eyeglasses frame, to be adapted on eyeglasses).
Adaptations of the bioptical device on various supports:


device at the right eye device between the eyes device at the left eye

The bioptical device is attached to the headset by means of a connecting link that enables a fast and easy movement in the three positions presented in the photos.

device at left eye with eyeglassess device attached to handle device attached to a support similar to the eyeglasses frame


device attached to the eyeglasses

The bioptical device and the annexes were handmade, however with technical solutions that assure precision within the margins prescribed for binocular vision.

The bioptical composition is conceived to be regarded in several stages namely certain stages of successive contemplation, with intervals of time depending on the manner of perception of bioptical effects, as follows:

(example provided in respect to the device positioned on the headset)
Stage 1 – Positioning between the eyes enables a normal vision, considering the composition as a traditional (conventional) one.
Stage 2 – Positioning at the right eye enables the fusion (as a psychic process) of the two components of the binogramme; the observer perceives biotical effects: binocular rivalry, colour fusion, stereoscopy.
Stage 3 – Positioning at the left eye enables reversing the fusion manner of the binogramme components (as a psychic process), the observer perceives important modifications in the bioptical effects, in respect to the sensorial asymmetry between the two eyes.
Stage 4 returns to stage 1 when the differences I named residual impressions are also found: I present the definition excerpted from:

Introduction to bioptical terminology (Bioptical Art)

RESIDUAL IMPRESSIONS - Impressions that persist after bioptical observation, at the end of the psychic cycle, when looking with the naked eye, hence „with a different eye”. Impressions last for long….

The stages may be of course combined in various manners. They form what I named psychic cycles in bioptical art.


Scketch of the bioptical device (Liviu Iliescu):

The bioptical device comprised from two mirrors (G1) and (G2), positioned periscope-like in front of the right eye, projects the field (Fd) at the level of the field (Fs), which is viewed directly with the left eye. Bioptical effects appear by fusion. The broken axis X-Y is superposed to the axis of the right eye Z-Z, resulting a virtual prolongation Z'-Z', which by correlation with the axis W-W ensures the convergence of binocular viewing.

Studies of application of virtual reality in fine arts are made, which, as it is known, need a complicated observation device. The alienation from the traditional artistic object is however debatable.

The mirrors of the bioptical device may be made so that not to modify the visible spectrum more than the eyeglasses lens (upon request, performances can be obtained, by making mirrors with thin layers).

Some of the adopted techniques

Crossed-eye viewing

Dutour clearly describes binocular rivalry of two outlined colours (in 1760, 1763). Thus, Dutour describes the effects obtained by their fusion with the naked eyes, by eye convergence or divergence.

Paired-off drawings are used for research in the field of binocular rivalry, and for publications the convergent vision was chosen, with the mention: arranged for cross-eyed viewing.

This manner of observing was resumed also in the auto-stereogrammes invented by Christopher Tyler in 1990 (known as the Magic Eye).

I also used the Dutour method in my first publication:

Method for Model Making OSIM no. 67678 on 19.02.1974

I also used the method subsequently, as the sole manner of communication by publications, although it involves adaptation difficulties.

L. Iliescu

The sketch showing the crossed-eye viewing:

With the left eye (Og) the pencil tip is projected to the circle (Cd), and with the right eye (Od) the tip is projected to the circle (Cg), so that to notice three circles, concurrently with the appearance of another image between the two initial ones, which is the fusion image.

L. Iliescu

This is a drawing that can be diversified by beginners (I can provide certain explanations as the case may be – Paint program can be used); in the case of this drawing, stereoscopic and transparency effects are obtained by fusion.

Liviu Iliescu - binocular rivalry, colour fusion and stereoscopy
Bioptical Art 1998
Excerpts from Liviu Iliescu - Adieri albastre - Magazine "Arta" no. 9-10/1990
Romanian Plastic Artists Union

If we lay up the arms on sides, in Christian cross, and if we look forward with two eyes, we still see towards the blind margins, the blurred and simultaneous presence of fingers, and the attention oscillates between the pointed object and the blurred extremities of the hands. If, in the same position with cross-wised arms, we point to the darkness of an open door, the attention will be pointed more to the blurred margins; and if we would call the thought of a flight, the attention towards inside would fluctuate between the wing ends and what - in that blue breeze darkness - would be the NON-BEING OF OUR LIMITS.

This property to assimilate and to perceive decreasingly, from one centre of the maximum intelligibility towards the blind periphery, could be called gradient - and, respectively, related to it, gradient in the visual arts. According to the findings of the BIOPTICAL ART experiments, the FRUITFUL EFFECTS of the visual art means could be appraised based on (their) TRANSDUCTIVE EFFECTIVENESS - of reduction of the plastic entropy, through development of related stimulus for various primary steps of the perception. Such means - in fact, PERMANENT IN ART - lead in composition to discrete presences; these require efficient knowledge and use. However, surprising effects could also occur - accidentally, such as, for example, the simultaneous contrast, the chromatic perspective, the value perspective, and so on.

Permanent would then represent those means that act indirectly and that are used from one case to another, without causing tiredness or the feeling of wear. I would recall, among the results of my bioptical experiments, the dynamics of the space depth, that allows for increasing the gradient's value, meaning the possibility to convert the plastic space in a higher extent into centre, against the composition's margin.

When looking at the global perception (with both eyes), with the attention focused ahead, but by becoming aware of the blind periphery shapes, decreasing psychic influences occur towards the margins, up to the inhibition limit. From case to case, one may interfere in terms of influencing the centre by the margins, by interposing a HIATUS, to which the dosage of the colours balanced by the background dominance is also associated. (Figure R11)

Figure R11 (L. Iliescu)

Should the visual examination assume a SWEEPING look with delays in the maximum attractiveness sites, the global perception suspends the examination, in order to comprise the entireness. It is a manner of composing and then of looking, that leads to the dispersion of attention, distributing it also to the edges, a fact that has a significant role in activating the CONTEMPLATION CONDITION, by reuniting the appearances of the composition with the adjacency evocations of the receiving subject. This way the options of investigations in the pre-postulational field are also enlarged, with potential contiguities in science: the fundamental sizes SPACE AND TIME („Science leaves the eyes for the world”, considered W. Heisenberg), the criteria of IDENTICAL and DISTINCT of the production logics 21).

The bioptical experiment allows for introspective training upon time and space, considered in an objective metrics, achieving psychic replicas: PSYCHO-SHAPE. The identical and the distinct are obtained by exploring the picture or the shape in space - first with the naked eye, and then through the bioptical device and, in the end, with the naked eye once again, thus achieving what we called the PSYCHIC CYCLE

I have previously asked for the support of the Romanian Academy for the execution of this composition, obtaining these recommendations:

ABSTRACT on the work Bioptical Art
by engineer Liviu Iliescu
I got acquainted with certain ideas of Mr. Iliescu from the few articles published in the „Arta” Magazine between 1987 and 1990. At their time, I read these articles with a lot of interest for it seemed to me that they were adding significant elements for the morphological and chromatic analysis of the paintings. I have recently read them again and I completely keep the opinion I had a few years ago. I cannot judge the physics related aspects involved here, nevertheless I cannot miss that these are placed further on to the research conducted decades ago, at Bauhaus de Klee.
I still believe that the relation between the three-dimensional space and its projection in plane are worth to be investigated in detail in order to explain the effects, sometimes still unexplained, of the coloured painting upon the view.

Mr. Iliescu asks the management of the Academy to allow him to continue the experiments within a space made available by the Academy. Maybe a garage, a warehouse, a storage room. A large space is concerned, as some works used in his experiments have sizes of 6 x 9 m.

If such a space is available, I think it could be assigned for a certain period, for it seems to me that the experiments of Mr. Iliescu deserve such sacrifice.
Dan Grigorescu
This abstract was drafted by academician Dan Grigorescu within the Academy in order to support a request of the undersigned on 22.05.1995.
Romanian Academy, Anthropological Research Centre no. 852, December 16th, 1994

To the ROMANIAN ACADEMY, General Secretary
Upon the request of engineer Liviu Iliescu, of Bucharest, IOR advisor, author of a theory in the bioptics field, I have examined the numerous studies he published as well as the devices and the tables executed for the development and completion of the field he handles for many years and we consider that his efforts are worth being supported.

As a matter of fact, the Academy Management appreciated favourably 3 years ago the works of that time. In the meanwhile Mr. Liviu Iliescu continued to study, to complete and accomplish his theoretical and practical instruments, the results of his actions being that the two-eyed imagistic physiology is involved in the brain functionality and in particular in the binocular vision lateralisation /integration process, shaping innovative phenomena and processes… etc., all of them benefitting from proper reasoning and demonstration.

Mr Iliescu asks support for a determined period that follows to be determined, for the obtainment of an appropriate space (a larger work room, e.g. the exhibition room of the library) where he can benefit from proper conditions for the verification of his research on various subjects.

As the Anthropology centre does not have available an appropriate space for the requested experiment, considering that it represents an important gain for the Romanian science, we support the request submitted by engineer Liviu Iliescu in front of the Academy's institution.
PhD V. Sahleanu

L. Iliescu, Study in wide-angle field, oil on canvas, 800 x 220 cm
Bioptical composition with field binocular rivalry.

In the centre of the field, shapes are painted in binocular correspondence (effects of rivalry, of colour fusion and of stereoscopy). At the side, conventional shapes are painted (uncorrelated from the bioptical point of view) in bright tones. At a closer look to the centre, they are perceived unclearly, at the side of the visual field. Attention oscillates between the centre and the side of the field, in succession, at intervals of a few seconds (looking forward at all times). Between the central and the side shapes, an area is interposed (approximately elliptical) denominated hiatus in art that makes aware a global perception including also the haziness from the sides, engaging almost the entire retina of the eyeball.

By global viewing exercises, using large field compositions, the concept of visual gradient in fine arts may be developed and used in communication.

The large visual field isolates the central bioptical nucleus, in contemplation, from environmental influences, such as other near compositions. They cause inhibitions to the observer, of which the observer is not aware, but which influence psychically.

We may easily find that the global visual perception in the environment is the one of a field with an approximately elliptic shape (lenticular)

The wide-angle field bioptical composition was created by the author, photographed and then increased 5 folds through projection until the size of 800x220 cm.
The work belongs to the copyist Ionel Tepelea working under the author’s surveillance, by observing the lines and the colour tones so as to obtain long-term experienced bioptical effects.
The composition was performed in one of the C. Brancusi rooms of the Romanian Parliament House in November 2001

The large field painting is assembled on 5 frames with the sizes:
- one central frame 200 x 220 cm
- two lateral frames to the left 150 x 220 cm
- two lateral frames to the right 150 x 220 cm

I–Intensity of visual sensation (on the ordinate).

T –Time of psychic adjustment (measurable and differing from one subject to other) (on the abscissa).

t –Duration of psychic cycle: naked eye vision, then through the bioptical device, then naked eye again. The end of the cycle (when the device is removed) is expressed by vector M.

i –Remaining sensations or residual impressions. The psychic cycle is not entirely reversible. When the bioptical device is removed, one sees „with a different eye”.

e –Evolution of the hyperspace: occurrence of stereoscopic effects. The composition aims at destroying relations known from conventional representations –spatial values of some colour patches which intersect or superpose. Naturalistic links change (e.g. – the cart wheel is modified in bioptical vision as follows: the felloe, the spokes and the hub acquire positions in hyper-depth, getting transferred into another space, with other relations – somewhat illogical as compared to the normal representation. The phenomenon of retinal cooperation is present.

h –Evolution of the antispace: elements which provide a naturalistic perspective in normal vision (near red, distant blue, vanishing lines towards the horizon) are perceived reverted, in bioptical vision, following slower accommodation. Though the antispace occurs as a phenomenon of pseudoscopy, artistic inspiration may result in perception modifications and psychic contradictions.

f –Evolution of the psycho-space: by means of the bioptical device, each eye sees different shapes and colours – e.g. an eye sees a square, the other one a triangle; one sees blue, the other red. Perception oscillates between square and triangle, blue and red. In the case of elements which result in retinal cooperation, colours are fused psycho-physically and the resultant is violet, pulsating to red or blue. The diagram shows the variation in intensity of the visual sensation for a component–a single eye.

e and h –Changes in spatial perception, within a psychic accommodation time, dilated throughout a cycle, depending on the recipient-subject. This time, measurable from without, is placed on a scale physically defined as objective.

Blue breezes, "Arta" (Bucharest), no 9-10; 1990
To what extent do the bioptical modalities influence negatively the spontaneity and inspiration of the artist?

The painting can be divided in two fields (Fd, Fs)
The artist begins the composition in the Fd field where he has full freedom to apply any style, at any pace according to his inspiration, training and talent, without restrictions.
In the field Fs the bioptical rules of correlation with the Fd field are applied. However, in these cases as well, there are multiple conceptual possibilities of shapes (lines and colours).

As the composer seeks the following note on the piano, second by second, to obtain the melodic line that corresponds to the moments of inspiration, in the case of bioptical composition, as well, the artist must follow in discrete succession the introduction of stimuli in the Fs field, to be confirmed by his artistic sensibility.
To avoid the artistic alteration, when the shape is repeated in the two fields dissatisfying the artist's inspiration, the procedure is to extend the shapes in the Fd and Fs fields and vice-versa.

This practice also applies to the compatibility with the conventional composition (in the naked eye contemplation)

In this case, a central shape (a---a > b---b) must have as optical correspondences the shapes (a’---a’) and, respectively, (b’---b’)

I performed compositions by introducing a third field for special effects of binocular rivalry in the manner I describe in my publications.
I also established rules to apply bioptics in sculptures with penetrability effects (parts of the sculpture are perceived, crossing a wall)

The modalities that I propose may be valorised by arousing a wider interest, if the fine art artists, by using traditional techniques and their talent, will create complex compositions with bioptical stimuli. On one hand, Bioptical Art will bring developments in research of psychology, neurology and psychiatry, and, on the other hand, it will give possibilities to the field of aesthetics to supplement chapters such as: disinterested interest, art as sensorial experience, art dependent knowledge and others.
Other considerations with self quotations from:
“Bioptical Experiments and Some Anthropological Reflections”
Many works are known in abstract art as having surprising effects, compositions famous for their originality, however, regardless of the genre in which they are included, a saturation can be noticed, as they are considered as a whole, not only related to style. The reduction to the same denominator the various artistic genres results especially from the limited offer of the technical means and modalities.

Lines and flat colour spots, conventional perspectives, simultaneous contrast effects, compositions in space (tridimensional, sculptures) with roundness, angles, polishes, lead to effects of satiety, regardless of the combinations and originality of the compositions.

One may find nowadays the taking over of transpositions from the environment, by idealized forms or with extreme deformations, by daily snapshots with a transfixed life pushed to saturating limits. All of these also prove to a certain extent the desire to find ways out of the borders of suffocating communication modalities.

To support my approach to find diversification ways in fine arts, I took into account what I believe to be another progress vector deriving from the structure of the being. Namely, a vector to which the following features could be attributed: the useful, the need, the satiety

A cyclic dynamics can also be noticed in the relation need – satiety, as follows:
-Need is presented cyclically in succession with satiety.
-Primitive needs have a higher frequency (are installed more frequently in time) than the trained ones.
-Trained needs have a lower frequency, to the extent of a more remote affiliation from the primitive needs, some of them becoming aperiodical.

This state could be compared to the one from the musical field, where the need for new instruments was felt, with new tone capacities, which amplified the affective communication, enabling new interpretations and which generated concurrently new compositional modalities.

(the optical intermediation system, which I named bioptical device, proves to be an amplifying instrument in affective communication).

I would like that the optic intermediation system, the biotic device, proves an instrument with similar effect.

The complexity of the sounds produced by symphonic orchestras from complicated instruments, played by trained, talented artists cause emotions to the audience, and the rational is attenuated a lot, and it is found to a lower extent at specialists. The latter give the answer post factum to the prosaic question “how is it made?”, when, of course, the rational must intervene, to ensure continuity in training and creation.

The visual, the means that generate stimuli, musical instruments can be separated in symphonic music from the successive perception of the sounds that cause artistic emotion.

Similarly, by attempting to disambiguate the advantages of the art that I propose, I consider the abstract fine art with bioptical stimuli together with the optic device as part of the instruments that assure multiple ways of bioptical perceptions (see the denominations herein above), including of the ones which have not been experienced by humans yet.
The successive observation, with and without the bioptical device (with and without crossed-eye viewing), causes new types of contrasts, partially dynamic, with powerful emotional influences.

I give an example, which, in light of the above, must be regarded in the succession: with and without crossed-eye viewing:

I present self quotations from the book The Paired Off Visual Signal and respectively from the introductory chapter
About interpretations or exegeses by means of bioptics
– variations on a theme –
“We know about “variations on a theme” in music. Variations are introduced in a certain theme in point of melody (to a certain extent), rhythm, relative values of the notes, harmony. Some composers are known to revive the works of other musicians, as a homage. It is also known that composers use to introduce cadences of their own in the concertos created by others.
The bioptical art permits to introduce similar modalities, as I shall show in the following lines. Many compositions of the modern plastic art succeed in conveying only a little of the artist’s sensitivity. They have a high entropic degree. Art critics try to cover the distance between the artist and the recipient subject. I provide the opportunity to introduce in well-known compositions a different type of wordless comments, with the help of bioptical means. They may complement known types of visual psychotherapy with beneficial effects.”…..

Minimal art is a current of contemporary art initiated in the sixties in the United States. In painting, two or three colours are generally used, the same as basic forms: circles, squares, straight lines, a.s.o.

Dan Flavin
Simplicity is primordial and there is no subjective representation in minimalism; it is devoid of any symbols and plays only on forms and colours, avoiding emotion in a literal sense: an art devoid of any subjective and objective feelings”. (Wikipedia)

Interpretation in Bioptical Art

Spatial colours are observed with crossed-eye viewing, as if a dematerialization of the substance occurred.