Contents (PVS)

1. Introduction
2. Binocular rivalry and stereoscopy in bioptical art
3. Bioptical effects, definitions
4. Bioptical means for psychotherapy
5. Laboratory hall for visual therapy
6. Aspects relative to the applications of plastic arts in psychotherapy
7. Psychodrom
8. About interpretations or exegeses by means of bioptics
9. About a didactic experiment in bioptical art
10. Space - time - colour
11. Contributions
12. Visual-sense-storming
13. Visual binarity
14. Some additions and resumptions on the bioptical composition
15. Psychical satiety in affectivity

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Contributions of the author - Liviu Iliescu - to applications of Binocular Rivalry and Colour Fusion
(Bioptical Art)

The Paired off Visual Signal   Liviu Iliescu

The Bioptical Composition
In Figure K1- I have placed the composition fields (Fs) and (Fr) on a vertical axis.
On one hand, this position allows a greater precision for image fusioning within the limits of medical prescriptions, and on the other hand, it offers the possibility to achieve the compatibility of plastic arts compositions with conventional compositions.
The device consisting of two mirrors, (G1) and (G2), placed like a periscope in front of the right eye, cast field (Fd) at the level of field (Fs), the field viewed with the left eye. The fusion tendency results in bioptical effects. The superimposition of the broken axis X-Y on the axis of the right eye Z-Z, results in the virtual extension Z`-Z, which, by correlation with axis W-W assures the convergence of the binocular vision.

Fig. K1

Fig. K2

Figure K2 - The vertical arrangement - in addition to the artistic effects to be described further - has also the advantage of permitting to achieve bioptical paintings on a horizontal, namely fresco painting.

Fig. K3 a; b

The drawings of figure K3 (a); (b) with coloured composition areas E + D; H1 + H2; D + D'; E + E' are shown. Seen with the naked eye, the artistic meaning and effect of the composition is enhanced by the fact that in the center (E+D) there is a figure with portions in both fields. The diversification of colours is obvious. In field (Fs+Fd) the colours are conventional. Actually, the colours perceived are worked out psychophysiologically and cannot be materialized in any way. For the compatibility of conventional and bioptical compositions, signs which belong geometrically to field (Fd) are extended in field (Fs), but these extensions are found in field Fd. The tiered placement of fields corresponds to the vertical coordinate of spiritualness: Mt Olympus, the home of gods; the heavenly Jerusalem and the spots beyond the perfection of the heavenly blue, trying to get liberation by praying while contemplating the sky
The sketch of figure K3 llustrates the application of colour rivalry: (a) visual perception with the naked eye, (b) perception using the optical device. In case (b), composed colour hues are presented informatively, since the effect of rivalry cannot be materialized. Field (Fd) contains stimuli for one of the eyes and field (Fs) contains the corresponding stimuli for the other eye.
To a sign in field (Fd), there corresponds a sign in field (Fs) and together they form the paired off visual signal of binocular rivalry or of stereoscopy.

Fig. K4
Stereogram (arranged for crossed-eye viewing)

Bioptical device (figure K5) Small periscope-like device, made up of two mirrors - one being adjustable, placed in front of one eye.
This device is built in conformity with the medical regulations, allowing relaxed contemplation for a long period of time (similar to spectacles)

Fig. K5

Figure K6 - Bioptical Composition - We may notice the compatibility with the conventional plastic arts compositions

Fig. K6 L. Iliescu, Study C, oil on cardboard, 65x90 cm

Fig. K7 Detail of figure K6
Stereogram (arranged for crossed-eye viewing)

Visual gradient. Visual perception, whose acuity decreases from the centre of clearest vision to the margins of the visual field. It is related to wide-angle bioptical compositions.

Fig. K8 L.Iliescu, Study in wide-angle field, oil on canvas, 800x220 cm

Figure K8 shows a bioptical composition with a field binocular rivalry. In the centre of the field, forms in binocular correspondence are painted - effects of rivalry and stereoscopy. At the periphery, conventional forms are painted in bright hues. When viewing the centre attentively, peripheral forms are perceived to be blurred, at the margin of the visual field. Attention oscillates between the centre and the margins of the field, in succession, at intervals of several seconds (when looking ahead, all the time).
Note. At the same time, disturbances of the subconscious caused by other compositions in the vicinity are avoided
Bioptical Sculpture
Figure K9 displays a sketch for a bioptical sculpture
A tiered ensemble with paired off signs in bioptical correspondence, such as cuttings-out, outlines, prominences, as well as variously coloured surfaces. In addition to their tiered arrangement, forms also have a radial coordination, so that some inner surfaces provide coloured backgrounds for the cuttings-out of the other structures. The effects of standing out and floating are also obtained by breaking outlines with the help of prominences.
Sight A - main sight; Sight B - sight from above of the limits which circumscribe the forms in space.
D1, D2, D3 - observation directions to be preferred.
F1, F2, F3, F4 - support forms in space, including bioptical correspondents
a, a' - outlines in bioptical correspondence.
b, b' - succession of (cut out) triangles, correlated so as to obtain the reversal of the naturalistic perspective.
c, c' - coloured surfaces or cuttings out which induce retinal rivalry.
d, d' - correlated prominences, to be detached from the ensemble.
f, f' - elements which break the outlines.
n - noncorrelated outline.

Fig. K9

Fig. K10 L. Iliescu, 3D Shape 35x35x55 cm

Fig. K11 Detail of figure K10
Stereogram (arranged for crossed-eye viewing)

Figure K10 shows a bioptical composition in space (bioptical sculpture). The forms in bioptical correspondence are placed in two tiered spaces. When viewing through the bioptical device, there occur bioptical and steroscopic images. Stereoscopic effects create a superspace. The composition elements placed in space seem to move in another space, with depths up to several scores of metres, penetrating other objects from the space. Figure 10 shows the photo of a model of a bioptical sculpture. It was used to prove the effects of binocular rivalry and colour fusion, combined with stereoscopic effects (transposition into hyperspace of a sculpture already made up of forms in space). In that photo some colours were retouched, which points to the possibility of introducing stimuli of binocular rivalry. In the case of a bioptical sculpture, the forms are set in two superposed areas Vd and Vs. In one of the areas the theme is developed with some restrictions for the component forms, while in the other area, other restrictions are added, namely those resulting from the stimulation of some bioptical effects.

Fig. K12

In figure K12, the sculpture, viewed from a distance Do, may develop up to a certain depth limit Ps, to which there corresponds a limit observation area So. Viewed from outside the observation area, some forms are not bioptically correlated any longer (there occur image divisions for certain components, which are disturbing).
The photo in figure was taken from outside area So. When the extracts of figure K10 (figure K11) are viewed with crossed eyes, spatial effects may be noticed only for the left forms.
The bioptical sculpture may be achieved only by accepting the tolerances for deviations from eye convergence, prescribed for binocular optical devices. By taking into account those tolerances, one may scale the limits of characteristics in figure 12. It is possible to diversify the forms of the sculpture not correlated bioptically, forms free of restrictions, viewed from outside area So. Thus sculpture may appear as a conventional composition, when viewed with the naked eye.

Colour in bioptics
It has the following characteristics:
- It is translucent;
- It changes alternatively, successively tending to components;
- It is in motion;
- It is nacreous;
- It is phantom-like. These effects are obtained depending on:
- the component colours of fields (Fs) and (Fd);
These colours are of the type of illusions which cannot be materialized, but their effects may be imparted to other persons.
Colour in the case of the bioptical composition appears under three aspects:
- alternatively (binocular rivalry)
- as colour fusion (Dutour, Helmholtz)
- as colour fusion, in relatively small outlines, using marks with intermediary colours (psychophysiological mixture, revealed in bioptical art L. Iliescu)

Colour fusion with marks

Fig. K13 L.Iliescu, Study M, 1987.
Oil on cardboard, 65x90 cm

Fig. K14 Detail of figure K13
Stereogram (arranged for crossed-eye viewing)

Hyperrealistic effect

Fig. K15 L. Iliescu, Study A, tempera on cardboard, 65x85 cm

Fig. K16 Detail of figure K14
Stereogram (arranged for crossed-eye viewing)

Effects which emphasize the realism of images by placing in a stereoscopic way reflections, glitters and shadows in the vicinity of forms and by rendering the structure of transparent bodies. Conventional painting uses perspective means to reproduce well-known forms (glass vases and tumblers, objects of polished metal, etc.). Since reflections and refractions actually result in spatial images, separated from the surfaces which produce them, bioptical techniques permit their placing at depth and artistically enhance those effects. (Hyperrealism is an art movement which aims at not interfering with the modification of reality. In painting, the artist "selects" a fragment of real life, which he "photographically" reproduces, with surprising details. To be sure, this goal cannot be attained using perspective alone. Account should be taken of the spatial relationships, which are to be effectively perceived as such).
The bioptical Space provides effects of stereoscopy in abstract representations
- modifies shapes when passing from the normal observation to observation through a bioptical device
- reverts line as and colour perspectives
The dynamics in the boptical space is defined as the effect of displaceing the shapes painted in the superimposed field (Fs+Fd), shapes painted according to certain rules. These effects are noticed in the paintings reproduced in the book and in the site.
The displacement in time is noticed, as duration differs from one viewer to another (1... 5 minutes). Duration decreases with trained subjects. Hence kinetic perceptions may be revealed from static forms.
Modification of form in psychic perceptive structures. The bioptical art provides the possibility to look at something successively, with the naked eye and through the bioptical device, thus obtaining fundamentally different perceptions. This possibility has been called by me a psychic cycle.
Important differentiations perceived - among others - are also those related to the modification of form. Two may be seized:
- The transition from a form related to reality to another form also related to reality, when succesively looking with the naked eye and throuth the bioptical device;
- In the same succession, a flat form or a group of colour spots are perceived when viewed through the bioptical device, as forms related to reality (with no kinetic modifications, as in cinematography).
Modification of form in psychic perceptive structures. The bioptical art provides the possibility to look at something successively, with the naked eye and through the bioptical device, thus obtaining fundamentally different perceptions. This possibility has been called by me a psychic cycle.
Important differentiations perceived - among others - are also those related to the modification of form. Two may be seized:
- The transition from a form related to reality to another form also related to reality, when succesively looking with the naked eye and throuth the bioptical device;
- In the same succession, a flat form or a group of colour spots are perceived when viewed through the bioptical device, as forms related to reality (with no kinetic modifications, as in cinematography).
Bioptical Anti Space Modalities which introduce retinal disparities accepted by binocular vision, resulting in the perception of spaces that contradict the currently seen surrounding space, for instance, reversal of the colour perspective and association of contradictory vanishing lines. E.g. reversal of daylight chromatic perspective (figure 3.2): a sequence of similar triangles, which are bigger towards the horizon, coloured in blue, then in green, then in red towards the horizon. (Figure 3.3 comparatively shows the normal perspective from the surrounding space). As against conventional painting, with reversed vanishing lines, in bioptical pictures triangles are perceived as being actually placed in a different space.

Fig. K17

Fig. K18
Stereogram (arranged for crossed-eye viewing)

Bispace in Art Group of stimuli (lines and colour patches) evoking different images for either eye in part. In bioptical vision, one successively perceives a series of forms or another, representing a system of two coexisting spaces. For instance, one may alternatively perceive a series of triangles and then a series of squares, as a result of "binocular rivalry".
Chapter: Geometrical Elements in Bioptical Art from Bioptical Art [1] (; developments of analytical geometry of these methods are presented
Contributions are also described in The Paired off Visual Signal [15]
(PVS)-Images for Visual Therapy Bucuresti Monitorul Oficial ISBN 978-973-0-05187-2
OSIM Patent no 67678/19.02.1974 - Metoda pentru realizarea machetelor [Method for model making]. [6]
I present formulae to be applied in painting compositions
The patent presents a method and the formulas used to calculate the dimensions of the pair signs, which determine the stereoscopic position of the visual signals towards the composition.
a = 0.064 c/(e-c); b = 0.064 d/(e + d)
a = the horizontal distance on the painting, corresponding to a point in space, that should be perceived from the painting to the eye.
b = the horizontal distance on the painting, for a point that should be perceived behind the painting
c, d = distances in front or behind the painting where the repective points should be perceived.
e = distances at which the painting should be viewed (after the composition is achieved); it may be viewed from a distance of 0.25 meter up to tens of meters, depending on the initial calculation of distance e.
The value 0.064 in the formulas is the average pupillary distance, expressed in meters. Hence, a, b, c, d, e, will be given in meters.
In one of the fields of the painting, the composition is free of any restriction, as the artist may spontaneously transpose its inspiration. In the second field, he should establish the correspondences between points and differences. The above geometrical relations are applied in the beginning, when the artist has still to acquire skill. Afterwards, when creating perspective, he sets up the rules which govern conposition according to the rhythm of inspiration.
The rivalry stimuli introduced in plastic art compositions seem to exert a much higher psychic influence than in the case of independent
Liviu Iliescu OSIM Patent no 112061 C/ 31. 07. 1995 - Metoda pentru redari cinetice de tip stereoscopic [Method for kinetic renderings of a stereoscopic type]. [13]
Awarded the silver medal in the Salon International des Inventions - Geneva, April 12, 2000
The interactive method with kinetic stimuli of the binocular rivalry and colour fusion, which may be practiced by clicking on or on :
Method for stereoscope-type kinetic expressions
Highlighted psychophysical phenomena, such as :
antispace, bispace, hiatus and hyperspace in art, dynamics of space depth, hyperrealistic effects, psychic cycle, psycho/physical mixture of colors, retinal cooperation, space and time in bioptical art, spatial harmony, spatial disharmony, visual gradient etc.
Bioptical effects are perceived when looking with one naked eye, while the other is looking through an optical device, consisting of two mirrors mounted periscope-wise. One of the mirrors of this device may be adjusted so that image pairs could be looked at in bioptical correspondence.

Laboratory hall for visual therapy (PVS)

Fig. K19

Fig. K20

Figure K19 show the hall for psychotherapy. Shows a section of the hall.
1 - Circular wall of the rotonde; 2 - Cupboard; 3 - Set of bioptical paintings; 4 - Bioptical painting (every painting of the set may be electro-mechanically driven to window A); 5 - Bioptical sculpture; 6 - Frame of a bioptical painting; (The observer, seated in armchair 7 looks through the bioptical device 8 towards B and sees how the forms and colours of the sculpture and painting are floating in space. Some forms are viewed beyond the wall (see the description of figure 4.8); 9 - Monitor (connected to a computer where kinetic forms and colours of a bioptical type are programmed, as described in Patent RO 112061 [13]). The patient may interfere, to modify lines and colours; 10 - Frame for photographic reproductions of the Joey Fischer-type; 11 - niches (with installations for long electrical discharges with thunder - of the lightning type - as well as for corona-type discharges); 12 - revolving platform (where several sculptures 5 and reproductions 10 may revolve in angles up to 3600); C - indirect adjustable lighting, correlated to a spotlight B,with coloured filtres, for lighting up painting 4, which is being seen in window A; 14 - set of devices for objective measurements largely performed by telemetry.
To the above, one may associate appropriate music, whenever necessary.

About interpretations or exegeses by means of bioptics
We know about "variations on a theme" in music. Variations are introduced in a certain theme in point of melody (to a certain extent), rhythm, relative values of the notes, harmony. Some composers are known to revive the works of other musicians, as a homage. It is also known that composers use to introduce cadences of their own in the concertos created by others.
The bioptical art permits to introduce similar modalities, as I shall show in the following lines. Many compositions of the modern plastic art succeed in conveying only a little of the artist's sensitivity. They have a high entropic degree. Art critics try to cover the distance between the artist and the recipient subject. I provide the opportunity to introduce in well-known compositions a different type of wordless comments, with the help of bioptical means.

Fig. K21 Dan Flavin

Fig. K22

The modalities suggested by me may be turned to good account by artists, who can use both the traditional techniques of plastic arts and their talent, in order to create complex compositions with stimuli for binocular rivalry. The new modalities will bring about progress in the research-work of psychology, neurology and psychiatry on the one hand, and will enable aesthetics to supply new approaches to controversial topics, such as disinterested interest, art as sensorial experience, knowledge depending on art, and others.
In addition to the explanation of modalities to achieve bioptical art compositions, one should read the author's comments in [1] and, from chapters:

Bioptical art - preliminary explanations
Training of bioptical vision
Bioptical painting
Method for stereoscope-type kinetic expressions

Compatibility in Bioptical Art
Bioptical Art and INTERNET communications
Presentation of bioptical studies at the "Ion Mincu" Institute of Architecture, Bucharest
Space - Time - Colour
Stimuli-evoked abstractization [11]
Retinal cooperation [10]
Blue breezes
Some thoughts on light
The new, introduced by bioptical art
Line, as related with phyognomy and the sensuous expressionism
The aleatory and the inflation of ideas
Bioptical experiments and some anthropological reflections
Training of visual perception using wide-angle bioptical compositions
From chapter Bioptical experiments and some anthropological reflections [1] and
From the ensemble of my writings on bioptical phenomena, two types of statements stand out:
- Statements describing reproducible bioptical phenomena, observed in a great number of subjects. (Some could see spontaneously most bioptical phenomena, others required brief trainings, and about 15% perceived only a few; all the subjects had normal binocular vision and perceived depths in the surrounding space).
- Statements attempting to comment bioptical effects, suggesting virtual productivities in the field of arts or in the more comprehensive one of philosophy or even of sciences.
The first statements have a truth value close to 1 (the case of "recipes" for reproducible phenomena). The statements of the second type have relatively lower probabilistic values of truth, because of their pretensions of generality and of their metaphoric character. They might be characterized, however, as belonging to the statements of "seeking", preparatory for the axiomatic field. There may certainly appear overlaps... others have written it as well. My descriptions are hypotheses related to bioptical experiments and overlaps have the virtual character of a confirmation.
In relation to the idea to interpret conventional plastic art compositions by transposing them into Bioptics, using traditional techniques, I have firstly analyzed the general aspects. The following questions seem to emerge:
- Why are there so many currents in such a relatively short historical period?
- Why are generous ideas, valuable contents abandoned after few years from their emergence?
- Is it only about the hunger for originality?
- Why do these saturate reception so quickly?
- Why is the emotional "message" decreasing in intensity, causing the composition to become rather retrospective curiosities or originality values?
I suggested the possibility to develop studies relating to what could constitute the premises of utterances similar to postulates.
- necessity followed by satiety occurs in cycles
- primary necessities (resulting from unconditioned reflexes) have a higher frequency than acquired ones.
- The acquired necessities have a lower frequency and may become aperiodic, if more remote from primary necessities
The aperiodicity state derives from the attenuation of the interest through reflections from the socio-cultural context (i.e. the need to view the circus show, need that passed gradually from the adult to the child). Some needs seem more distant from the primary ones, such as the need to participate to sports (practicing or viewing sports competitions). This case, with a relatively high frequency (in relation to the individual), should perhaps be linked to the satisfaction of achieving a target, of reaching a purpose, of tracking, attacking and catching the pray, or to the satisfaction of the struggle for survival (accommodation to the environment) with adverse vectors, respectively, linked to the unconditioned reflexes.
Further on, the satiety-need inductive line seems to lead to the concept of "useful".
I also emphasize the vector of survival with the dimensions: usefulness, necessity, satiety (UNS)
- The vector of survival emerges from a multitude of factors, acknowledged or unknown that interfere in the survival process (accommodation to the environment through inventions and discoveries of useful - in a phylogenetic perspective)
- Not any useful, used occasionally, generates need.
- The vector of survival is injured by some deviation needs (i.e. drug use)
Although the useful seems to be in contradiction with the phrase "art causes a disinterested interest", it may be linked to the above described need also through the communications in the field of sacred.
A "useful" idea could be highlighted by referring to philosophical considerations such as the Pragmatic Theory of Truth (William James 1842-1910).
The useful (practical) is mentioned not only as opposing to abstract, but also as having applications in the field of theory in the case of certain efficiencies for research or for an action.