Contents (PVS)

1. Introduction
2. Binocular rivalry and stereoscopy in bioptical art
3. Bioptical effects, definitions
4. Bioptical means for psychotherapy
5. Laboratory hall for visual therapy
6. Aspects relative to the applications of plastic arts in psychotherapy
7. Psychodrom
8. About interpretations or exegeses by means of bioptics
9. About a didactic experiment in bioptical art
10. Space - time - colour
11. Contributions
12. Visual-sense-storming
13. Visual binarity
14. Some additions and resumptions on the bioptical composition
15. Psychical satiety in affectivity

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The Paired off Visual Signal   Liviu Iliescu

In the relationship between stimulus and the conscious awareness of sensation - if we skip the question "how is it that ...?", psychiatry seems to be prevailingly pragmatical.
The diversity of psychic ailments and the lability of the human being have led - as is known - to a great many types of therapy, some being contradictory. Among others, the therapies which make use of the arts - plastic arts included - are to be mentioned.
I try to bring to the attention of specialists some visual experiments of plastic arts, which I have carried out by applying my expertise with optical systems. I have described these experiments under the title Bioptical Art. I think this term is appropriate, following some studies undertaken in the sphere of particular modalities of perceptual extensions in painting and sculpture.
Compositions are created in the rhythm of inspiration for the main theme, but, in the process, in certain parts different stimuli have been introduced for each eye, so that by looking with an eye through a pair of mirrors (called bioptical device), while the other is naked, there occur psychophysiological effects with unusual artistic qualities.

Proposals, premises, hypotheses

The introduction into psychotherapy of bioptical compositions might induce efficient perceptions. I consider as bioptical adaptations well-known phenomena such as binocular rivalry, colour fusion, stereoscopic space. I also add others, resulting from experiments. The perceptions of binocular rivalry are likely to be the outcome of activating genetic inheritances (from phylogenesis), when the vision of beings ranged to almost 3600 and the conscious awareness of images was sequential (in time).
The introduction of bioptical stimuli into plastic art compositions would justify the premise of a substantially increased probability to get beneficial influences in psychotherapy. The great number of experiments and tests performed by me on a great number of subjects throughout scores of years (my first work was published in 1974) resulted in aspects which justify my bringing them to the specialists` attention.
Bioptical compositions mainly stimulate the experiencing of sensations which substantially increase the contemplation time. Painted or carved forms induce perceptions such as : reversals of chromatic and linear perspectives, ghostly colours (making the support - canvas, wood, stone - disappear), dynamic increases of depths (obviously from static stimuli) and others.
It is known that it is difficult to apply arts to psychotherapy because of the differences in the intellectual level of patients. In the case of bioptical art which induces primitive perceptions, experiences are practically independent of age or profession. Bioptical psychotherapy is beneficial fo r any person with a normal binocular vision, even though spectacles are worn.
Bioptical experiences increase the contemplation time much more than the experiences induced by conventional compositions.
The therapeutic type with bioptical stimuli could be assigned to relaxation. (Johannes H. Schultz, Le training autogene, Paris, PUF, 1958).
From the ensemble of my writings on bioptical phenomena, two types of statements stand out:
- Statements describing reproducible bioptical phenomena, observed in a great number of subjects. (Some could see spontaneously most bioptical phenomena, others required brief trainings, and about 15% perceived only a few; all the subjects had normal binocular vision and perceived depths in the surrounding space).
- Statements attempting to comment bioptical effects, suggesting virtual productivities in the field of arts or in the more comprehensive one of philosophy or even of sciences.
The first statements have a truth value close to 1 (the case of "recipes" for reproducible phenomena). The statements of the second type have relatively lower probabilistic values of truth, because of their pretensions of generality and of their metaphoric character. They might be characterized, however, as belonging to the statements of "seeking", preparatory for the axiomatic field. There may certainly appear overlaps... others have written it as well. My descriptions are hypotheses related to bioptical experiments and overlaps have the virtual character of a confirmation.
The technique applied by me is the outcome of studies and theoretical findings in the field of binocular vision. I made use especially of research relative to the inducement of sensations by introducing in tests different stimuli for the left and for the right eye. My studies consist in transposing those tests, as well as others of my own, into painting and sculpture. I have aimed at enhancing the possibilities to communicate by affective ways, to get psychic influence by compositional ideas.